It's not possible.
You can use the File>Place and copy and paste the URL into the Place dialog - but for me that puts a link from my Temporary internet files, not dynamically linked to the web.
You can store you images on a central server though and link them from there to the InDesign file. Once the link remains the same you can pass the InDesign file around.
If you don't have a central server then you can get a service like Google Drive or Dropbox and Package the file to that folder on your computer.
You can then ask other team members to download Dropbox and Install and login on their computer - the files will automatically be available to them once they download.