Naw, not nearly anything like that. C4D has no state sets that capture different materials, visibility states and all that. Once upon a time there was a plug-in in development for this, but it never got finished/ broke somewhere between versions. Otherwise you could in theory use different "Render settings" to define different sub-sets of multipass renders, but those options aren't available in AE so basicalyl it's an all-or-nothing approach. Of course you can duplicate comps to use different shading components, but really, it's nowhere near even beginning to get as sophisticated as MAX'S sets or modo, Lightwave and Maya's render passes. It's realyl just good old C4D...
C4D lite that comes with CC is nothing like Max, but I know a lot of Max folks that use C4D also and each has it's own advantages. I am no longer an active C4D user because a few years ago I could not afford a new license when I changed OS. I still have my old C4D windows machine but it's about 7 years old now and Maxon didn't offer cross platform licensing changes back then. The majority of my work does not involve heavy 3d work so I have not had the need or opportunity to add the latest C4D to my toolbox.
I'd download a trial and take a look. If you have the cash it couldn't hurt to have more tools in your toolbox.
Edit: Mylenium was writing at the same time. Take his advice. He does a lot more 3D than I do and knows his stuff.
Wow, bummer. AE & Maxon make it sound like it's the next best thing since the invention of sliced bread.
I was expecting it to exceed Max (the way the videos explain it).
I am still on an older machine (quad core 6600/ gtx 470)
and when I tried the demo (using a sphere & a cube) I had a hard time orbiting around with the camera in AE.
I got fustrated and said,..."let me ask around and see if this thing is even worth my time to explore it"
The last thing I wanted was to spend 9 Hrs playing around with it only to find out it does the same as MAX (or less)