You can uninstall any fonts that come with Adobe programs without risk (though if you work with other users's files you'll probably get a lot of missing font warnings if you remove the more popular faces). It probably won't affect performance much on any but a badly under-powered system or one with hundreds of fonts already installed.
I should maybe clarify that a little bit. There are a few "required" fonts installed with Adobe products, but they are all in private folders and pretty clearly marked. The only fonts you need in the normal font locations are those installed by the OS.