AH-HA! There's a new button to turn on and off layers - I discovered it quite by accident. I will leave the post in case others need to "find" that button. It's at the top of the layers panel to turn layer filtering on/off.
Photoshop CC, Windows 7 Home Premium
I added a new layer - it doesn't show up in the layers panel.
I added a shape - it doesn't show up in the layers panel.
I converted a layer into a smart object. - It doesn't show up in the layers panel.
THEREFORE - I CAN'T SELECT ANY OF THEM!
The document I am working on was created in CS6. It has a frame - WHERE IS THAT LAYER?
Thank you for any help/suggestions.
Can't find it, can you help me out?
I imagine Layer filters are what are being referred to. Layer filters have been present in Photoshop for quite a while now. I don't think the button to toggle the filters on and off is particularly new, but this is what it looks like. In this case the filter for Smart objects is depressed. As there aren't any in this image none show up and it looks like there are no layers present until you toggle the filter on and off.