Are you certain the Ae comp isn't corrupt?
Does it open ok directly in Ae?
Can you successfully do:
File > Adobe Dynamic Link > Import After Effects Composition
Are you trying to re-link to an existing comp,
or link a comp to a new iteration?
Has the duration of the Ae comp changed since you
had it successfully linked in your Premiere Project?
Solved the issue.
There were dynamic links to AE made inside of Premiere that were then deleted out of the After Effects project, as they were no longer needed. However, the comps were not deleted from Premiere. Thus, when in the premiere project there were "Linked Comp 01" through "Linked Comp 29", but in AE there was only "Linked Comp 01" through Linked Comp 07", then "Linked Comp 15" through "Linked Comp 29".
For some reason, when premiere went to locate this media, it would crash, presumably because it was looking for "Linked Comp 08" through "Linked Comp 14" in the AE project and they didn't exist.
After a bunch of hair pulling, I went through to link each comp individually, where I found the discrepency between the two projects. A bit of a hassle, but ultimately solved.
Hope this saves someone from a couple hours of insanity in the future.
-- Joe Bloe, thanks for the offer of help.