When I go to Render -> Lighting Effects, this is what happens:
As you can see, I don't get any kind of preview of the lighting. Whenever I move the adjusters around, nothing happens and nothing changes.
My whole workspace disapperas and this is what I get, and when I go to reset the workspace, it doesn't change.
What's going on? How can I fix this?
Photoshop relies on opengl for the display, and opengl again relies on the drivers installed for your graphics hardware. If those drivers are outdated and/or faulty, then you may run into these type of issues. On a machine at a school I teach Photoshop would crash when I pulled up the lighting filter.
Update your video driver to the newest version, and try again.