Nope. AE doesn't generate any dynamic datastructures that can be addressed and manipulateed with external inputs in this fashion. You will have to use Flash or specialized VJ-ing software.
AE does not do interactive because video, in and of it's self is not interactive. You can add interactivity to video using scripts and other tools that modify the player based on the CTI of the player like flash does, but you cannot directly directly add interactivity to video. There are no containers (codecs) that support that directly. The only options you have for video is to change the metadata associated with the file. Some containers do not even support that.
But since this can be achived in flash and I can export to flash from AE, is there a way to keep the effect connection to the keyframes? Or all this has to be done in flash?
You can export markers but that is all. Once again, video, the final rendered product from AE can only contain metadata, like markers, audio, and video. No interactivity is native to video.