This probably is not a problem related directly to Camera Raw. It's possible that the new version is in the wrong folder, or you have two different versions on your computer. Since you are on a Mac, I cannot give any more help than this.
That error message usually, practically always points to a damaged or corrupt image file.
If you used Nikon software to copy the files to your Mac, be advised that said Nikon software is notorious for damaging files in the process. Use the Mac Finder or, better, Bridge to download your images.
A faulty card, a failing hard drive, a bad USB port or cable can also be the cause of damaged files.
I have never seen or heard of that error message being generated on a Mac by a faulty Camera Raw installation or anything other than a corrupted or damaged file.
If you could post the NEF you're having trouble opening, we can probably help you identify the cause of the problem.
Thanks for the feedback - turns out it was an unfortunate coincidence that I had just implemented a new external hard drive that turned out to be faulty right after performing the update. I was receiving this message trying to open the files from this new hard drive, but the original source files on my SD card opened fine.