The problem you have is After Effects CC 12.0. For Mavericks support, you have to upgrade After Effects to 12.0.1 or 12.1. 12.1 is available since two days.
Do you have After Effects Comps imported into your Premiere Pro project via Dynamic Link? This would explain the instantly quitting of Premiere Pro, because the AE background-renderer does not work (because of version 12.0).
Go to http://forums.adobe.com/community/premiere and, in the area just under Ask a Question, type in
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I am Windows so did not bookmark the message, but at least one message thread has a possible solution