The people who made that decision don't come to this forum so we can't know for sure.
In earlier versions of InDesign, the default typeface was Times or Times New Roman. I think it depended on whether you were on a Mac or PC.
Here are some guesses. Adobe developed Minion Pro so it has the license. Minion Pro has the advantages of being an OpenType font. One advantage is that it is the same font for both Macintosh and Windows. That way it will appear the same on either platform. Also, because it's an OpenType font, it contains a large set of glyphs, including special OpenType features such as built-in fraction support. It supports most roman languages. It's a serif font, which is a good choice for a body weight font for reading.
I think the crossplatform thing is the biggest factor.
I can't count how many time I've opened an InDesign file that originated
on a Mac and got a font missing alert for Times which was the default
for the Mac version.
The reasoning for Minion Pro being the current default typeface for InDesign is very simple.
It is the only serif typeface that Adobe can count on being installed on the user's system given that a family of Minion Pro is installed by InDesign (either individually or as part of either the Creative Suite or Creative Cloud packaging).
Earlier versions of InDesign assumed that Times was available. But that was problematic in at least two ways. First, the Times family (not to be confused with the Times New Roman family) is not automatically installed on Windows systems. Users of Adobe PostScript printers who install the host software that comes with such printers may install the Type 1 Times font family, but that accounts for fewer and fewer users these days. Secondly, even on the Mac, the problem is which version of Times? The TrueType Times that ships with MacOS is different than the similarly-named Type 1 Times from Adobe. And of course, those are different from the OpenType CFF Times LT Std family currently available and highly recommended (cross platform and OpenType features).
Adobe's setting of Minion Pro is absolutely not an editorial by Adobe that we recommend that you use this font as your default. A consistent default had to be set and we could count on Minion Pro being available. Furthermore, Minion Pro supports quite a wide variety of languages including support for all the Latin-based languages, Cyrillic-based languages, Greek, and Turkish. A wide variety of OpenType features including ligatures, small caps, lower case numerals, etc. are provided as well. (For the ME versions of InDesign, the default fonts are set as Adobe Hebrew and Adobe Arabic, depending upon the version installed. Both of these font families take their Latin characters from Adobe Minion!)
Choice of fonts is very personal based upon needs (character set, viewing/printing condiitions, document style, space requirements, etc.) as well as taste. That's why there are tens of thousands (if not hundreds of thousands) of typefaces available.
It is exceptionally easy to change the default font settings for your InDesign installation. Simply open InDesign without opening a document, change the font setting (including style or any other settings) in the Character palette and close InDesign. Voia, new font defaults! Note that similar techniques set the default font for both Illustrator and Photoshop.
PS: Anyone for ITC Souvenir?