Is the issue that you want to recover the document, or ... ???
If you have a backup copy of the document it should work on other suitably authorized devices (see below).
If not, you may be able to persuade the seller to let you re-download it.
Depending how the iPhone is broken there may be ways to extract a document;
you would need to ask on an iPhone forum.
Apple has chosen to make up/downloading documents from ios devices awkward even when they are working.
The document is authorized to your Adobe ID.
You can authorize up to 6 devices at the same time with that ID.
If the iPhone is broken and you exceed the 6 device max,
Adobe can reset all your authorizations and you can redo the ones you need.
Unfortunately, you can't just have the iPad authorization removed.
Thanks for the info. The issue was that I had authorized the max number of devices and the broken iPhone was one of them. I will get Adobe to reset the authorizations and start over.