Did you update InDesign CC to 9.1?
I just did a test with InDesign CC 9.1, shown below. I created a custom text variable ("Dec 2013") and inserted it in a headline using the Banner Headline paragraph style.
When I linked to that paragraph style on another page by choosing Insert Cross-Reference, it correctly inserted that variable:
I'm having the same issue--in the below example, my Text Variable of the Chapter Number type doesn't show up as it should in the pane with a "?". I know it's related to the text variable because I typed text and gave it the "Chapter - Number" style and it did show up in the "?" panel.
Does anyone know if there's a solution? Or is this just something InDesign can't do? I have InDesign CC 10.0.0.70.
Does it work with a new document, or only with documents converted from older versions?
I had once the same problem and another similar one, where the page numbers disappeared in cross references. There was no way to bring them alive again, but this was limited to converted document. The only solution was to create a new document without any styles ans swatches and with the same page size and baseline grid settings with 2 pages. Then I could drag all pages to the new document and delete the first 2 pages at the end again.
No, my document wasn't converted from an older version.