That's not how you use it. Either copy the bacground layer, or add a copy merged layer to the top of the stack (Shift ctrl alt e) and use Highpass on that layer.
I'm guessing you know to set the blend mode to Overlay, or one of the blend modes below Overlay, to see the sharpen effect?
There's not a poster on this forum who has never been confused by having the Caps lock on, or been stuck by something oh so obvious when the penny drops! As often as not, I have to check a lot of my answers here, because most everything you do happens via auto-pilot, and when you have to stop and actually say what action does what, suddenly you are not sure. I expect female Photoshoppers are OK with their strange ability to do more than one thing at once, but I have no idea how that might work.