You can specify a range of records...
without plugins, data merge in indesign doesn't have purpose-built "triggers" as such (i.e. if a field = x, then y happens elsewhere). Ultimately, the text file in the data merge has to contain the necessary information that will appear in the output. However, the file that makes the txt file (e.g. excel) can have triggers such as if/else statements, and it is there where any information should be added as an additional field.
For example, if a background in label A is to be blue and label B is to be green, files would need to be created for these different colored backgrounds (e.g. A.ai and B.ai) and then the trigger in excel would be if <<field>> = <<condition>> then <<a>> else <<b>> and would be its own column.
There are dozens of plug-ins that may be able to do this, but seeing a return on investment from the purchase of the software (some can be quite expensive) is another matter.
Apart from placing images, there are only two instances of data merge that can, in a way, be triggered.
1: GREP styles. If the incoming type fulfils the requirement of the GREP style, its appearance can be dramatically altered.
2: Use of ligatures by the special font FF Chartwell, specifically the bar font. More information: http://colecandoo.wordpress.com/2013/09/04/another-use-for-ff-chartwell-plotting-x-and-y-c oordinates/