No problem here (OS 10.9.1). Have you tried doing a cold restart for your computer?
Apparently the AppleEvent subsystem can not even resolve the application by name.
The reported error could just be an applescript way to indicate a syntax error, e.g. the terminology data is not available - the equivalent to ExtendScript's OMV data needed to compile the script.
What happens if you execute the following script:
get path to application "Adobe InDesign CS6"
The event log should yield a meaningful path to the InDesign app...
You could also try to compile the script as script-application on a different machine and transfer the complete applet. If you run it you may find out which program is pretending to be InDesign.
Apparently something broke in my installation. When logged on as another (fresh) user on the same machine, it works fine.
No idea yet what it actually is, but I have a starting point at least...