Not explicitly, as far as I know. But you could accomplish much the same thing by listing your items to prioritize as individual drop-down list items, with the drop-down selections being things like Highest Priority, High Priority, Medium Priority, etc., or a rank order number: 1, 2, 3, etc.
The other way would be to set up your items in a Rating Scale matrix, with your selections along the vertical axis, and the rating along the horizontal.
Descriptions of the field types are available here: http://helpx.adobe.com/acrobat-com/formscentral/help/create-form.html
Neither of these options would preclude a person from rating more than one item the same as another, so your directions would need to be crafted carefully.
All that aside, you could request a rank order field type in the features request form: https://adobeformscentral.com/?f=XnF-KJVCovcEVQz9tZHYPQ
I hope that helps,