What version of AE do you have installed?
Which update patch are you attempting to install?
How are you attempting this update?
No specific info from you means nobody is going to be able to help.
I'm trying to install AE CS6 (the whole CS6 suite). I am using an install disk from my workplace, where they do not use OS mavericks but the most recent OS previous to mavericks. I thought I needed to use an AE update patch (AfterEffects-11.0.4-mul-AdobeUpdate) to fix errors in compatibility--I read this on the adobe site. But this update patch failed to launch as well. All the programs in CS6 now work EXCEPT: AfterEffects, Premiere, Media Encoder, Dreamweaver--which I have not yet been able to launch. Thanks for pointing out my lack of detail.
Read the other posts on this forum regarding using CS6 on Mavericks. If you upgraded your OS (instead of doing a clean install), the Mac OS incorrectly sets permissions for some folders. This may be the cause for your update failing to install. Those other posts have solutions.