I am sorry Romsinha but this doesn't really help.
I already restarted the desktop app and while I am obviously online and connected the problem (error message) remains the same. Information within the "home" tap is recieved/loaded (little blue spinning wheel) stating that various apps recently have been updated. Yet the same loading wheel within the "apps" tap results in an error. My best guess is that some internal link within the app is corrupted, leading to a source on a server that can not be reached.
I clean uninstalled adobe creative cloud as discribed in the article you provided (using the cleaner tool) and even uninstalled the browser plugin. After downloading and reinstalling creative cloud the problem however remains the same. "Apps" tap still shows the same problem. "Home" tap now displays the following:
Hi. try step 2 in this document: http://helpx.adobe.com/de/creative-cloud/kb/unknown-server-error-launching-cc.html
If it doesn't work, in the same Adobe folder where OOBE is, there should be another one called AAMupdater. Delete it too and then start again the Creative Cloud desktop app.
Thank you Luis, your recommended solution actually worked!
Thank you also for the quick response!
No problem. Glad it worked.