There is nothing necessarily inherent in the file formats that would foster a print processing speed difference which could be taken as a rule of thumb. There are too many variables otherwise to draw such a conclusion. If you're seeing a marked difference in the work you're currently doing, then it might be safe to say that those particular Photoshop files are processing faster than those particular Illustrator files when printed using your particular setup.
From experience I can say this: Illustrator files that originated as imported AutoCAD files often contain many more entities than is necessary to produce the desired display. I've done a lot of work with such files; I still do; and it's only gotten worse as computer-aided drafting technology has advanced. What looks like a single point or line segment is typically a stack-up of more than one...often many. This could account for the type of extended processing times you're seeing. Personally I would never favor the rasterizing of something that exists in vectors, but if time is of the essence, and you (know through testing that you) can get an acceptable printed result, then rasterizing may be a viable solution, once you've actually measured the time trade-off.
I'm certain the AutoCad drawings add hundreds if not thousands of line segments more than if it was created in more of an art format. Unfortunately reducing that number in a meaningful way would likely take more time than it would be worth.
I notice the AI file is about 1.3 meg where the psd file is about 400kb. I don't know if that translates directly or not.
If there are no other solutions rasterizing the image will probably be necessary.
AutoCAD files are very complex and this causes the problem you experience. And yes, the file size is an indicator of the complexity of a file. File size is huge if a lot of pixels or a lot of anchor points or a lot of effects are part of the art work.
Another problem is, that AutoCAD files often have not a specific line width, strokes are hairlines which are difficult to interprete and not allowed in printed ar work for InDesign. This might cause another problem. Fix the strokes in Illustrator.