As it seems, nothing.
What you have there is apparently a mixture of normal print PDF and interactive PDF. Adobe seem to distinguish those quite strictly and thus the interactive PDF are actually only intended to contain images, buttons and video. Exporting the document to some other format an convert it later with Distiller, in case you have got it, is also no option because the interactivity would be lost.
Perhaps a workaround: write or move all text into a separate document, export it as normal print PDF(s) and then place the PDF(s) in the interactive document. Let's hope, the exporter submits the embedded fonts to the final PDF.
Aha. I think I might have misunderstood the idea of "Interactive PDF". For me, that was a PDF where hyperlinks work etc. and where colours are in RGB. And "print" I understood as being for "paper" (and things like CMYK etc).
I have a document that I have to export twice: one for the print process (paper) and one for reading on computers/tablets (phones maybe). Am I right to conclude from the above that "Interactive PDF" is about forms and such? In that case, I must not export "Interactive" for reading on tablets and computers but as print as well. That might solve the problem that I have with font encoding and some readers on Android.
I also have to deliver "Optimized PDF" for the electronic version, so my current process is "Export as Interactive PDF", then open in Acrobat Pro and save as "Optimized PDF".
The export option "Adobe PDF (Print)" is for both, web or print, for RGB or CMYK. The "Adobe PDF (Interactive)" is especially for interactive PDFs with forms, buttons, embedded videos etc., but as you can see no font embedding options here.
Indesign compresses the PDFs already quite good so optimising them in Acrobat later does not bring much. It may also be that images in the PDF are resampled and might look even worse, for the sake of having small files.
Unless your font is restricted, ID automatically embeds a subset that should include all of the glyphs you used. I suspect the problem is at the reader end.
Of course one way to test that would be to openthe same PDF on another device, preferably a computer running Acrobat or Reader.
You said Acrobat for Android. I think you meant Reader for Android.
If you're missing glyphs, you should report it as a bug on the Adobe Reader for Android forum.
Actually, it was tested on many environments and it worked fine on all of them unless I got a report from someone that two readers (Adobe Reader being one of them) on Android had problems.
The file works ok with Preview.app, Acrobat Pro on OS X 10.9, Native WIndows 8 reader, Acrobat Reader on Windows XP, Native reader on iOS, Adobe Reader on iOS and Goodreader on iOS.
It seems a problem with those readers on Android, but I do not have Android, so I cannot test myself (I just got reports from someone).
There are 345 diagrams in the full PDF, but they are all vector PDF so they don't get resampled. But all in all, from the export in ID CS6 to the Optimized PDF saved by Acrobat Pro, the file shrinks from 38MB to 15MB.