A TOC should show any paragraph that is styled with one of the styles you've chosen for inclusion, so be sure you included the style assigned to your chapter TOC titles in the list of styles to use in the main TOC.
This certainly has worked for me in the past, but I haven't had reason to try it recently. What version of ID are you using?
Thank you Peter. I'm using ID CS6 and I've double checked and I'm using all the correct styles. In fact, I copied the title of the TOCs for the images and tables, pasted them on the same pages where those TOCs are and now they show up on the main TOC. I just wanted to do this without resorting to these tricks.
Now that the insert image button is reactivated, can you show us a screen capture of one of these TOCs at the chapter level with the title selected, and the paragraph style showing in either the Paragraph Styles panel or the Control panel, and another capture showing the TOC dialog for the main TOC? you can embed these in a post using the camera icon, like this: