I am a beginner in After Effects and would like to create this tracking animation:
What would be the best workflow to achieve this? Links to relevant tutorials would also be very helpful.
This GIF is a great example of the look and feel for the final product.
This is position animation on artwork that is revealed by an animated matte. It's basically the same technique you would use to write on a signature.
Step 1 Prepare your artwork
Step 2 Set up an animated mask to reveal the artwork. It is common to use mask paths and stroke with the effect set to reveal original to do this
Step 3 drop your animated artwork in another composition and animate the movement of the original comp.
From your example I can see a lot of layers and a lot of hand work setting up the paths. This kind of work must be done by hand. There is no single click effect solution.
Start here for tutorials. There are a bunch: animating lines in after effects
This one by my friend Angie Taylor gives you a good place to start https://www.video2brain.com/en/lessons/using-the-stroke-effect
You will kind of have to sort through all of the tutorials to find one that matches your needs but most of them that use stroke to reveal a line should give you a pretty good idea of the techniques that will work.