You could draw those shapes with shape layers. There is also something like a Glow effect operating in at least one part of this image, too.
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Hmm, ok thanks
That shot looks like an illustration with effects applied not an effect applied to a plain background.
You can use things like particle generators and fractal noise to generate all kinds of random patterns, but random geometric shapes need to have a source. One source of geometric shapes may be some symbol fonts combined with text animators. There are hundreds if not thousands of symbol fonts that may provide you with the shapes you want. Try a google search for free symbol fonts.
Yes thank you! you just gave me an idea