This dialog was popped up by Windows OS instead of Extension Manager. It seems that Visual C++ Runtime was not installed correctly or some system files were missing. I am afraid you have to reinstall Extension Manager.
If its C++, any way of telling which one? I think there about a dozen in my system. I did uninstall, then install the latest EM 2014. But since I guess the C++ redists are used by many apps, uninstalling the Extension Manager did not also uninstall which ever troubled C++ Redist?
EM CC integrates VS 2010 Runtime and normally will install it.