You can reproduce this on demand with a particular document as input?
Adobe might like to have a copy of a PSD saved from that document (assuming loading it then running Gaussian Blur reproduces the problem). Can you post it online somewhere, or give explicit instructions on exactly how to create it?
Below is the steps that where used to create the corruption in the files.
Gausian Blur corruption in Photoshop
Step 1. Create document with 3 layers + Background.
Step 3. Layer 2 - Create a box (Blue)
Step 4. Layer 1 – Fill layer (Yellow)
Step 5. Select layer 3 & 2 & scale down & press
Step 6. Change opacity of layer 1 & 2 to 25%
Step 7. Go to layer 2 and select Gaussian Blur filter
Please Note that the blue & Red Box Have changed
As I Zoom in and out the corruption gets worse.
Sometimes this corruption dose’nt show up until you have
saved & reopened the file.
This problem could be specific to your particular system or platform, or something that you didn't mention (like the precise size of the images,how you're filling your rectangles, etc.).
I just ran through it several times with small and large images, trying to match what you showed above. Every time my display looks normal at the point of Gaussian Blur (where yours has lost its color), and the operation completes normally and leaves the image uncorrupted. Hopefully someone with a Mac will try the same steps.