When you run the Acrobat accessibility checker, the Accessibility Checker Options dialog should appear. If the "Create accessibility report" box checked then Acrobat should create a detailed report. It will not be displayed in Acrobat though - you can browse to the report (wherever you specified that it be created) and open it in a browser. If you would like more detail - and more rigor - in your PDF accessibility testing, please consider the excellent free accessibility checkers from the Swiss foundation Access for All - PDF Accessibility Checker (PAC) 1.3 for WCAG 2.0 compliance, and PAC2 for ISO 14289 (PDF/UA).
Hope this helps,
a 'C' student