You are probably thinking about Filter>Stylize>Glowing Edges
or in Filter>Filter Gallery>Glowing Edges
I just looked again. It says Find Edges.
I went to use the Find Edges filter and it just changes the image without offering the adjustment box. How can I get it back?
Adobe Photoshop Version: 14.2.1 (14.2.1 20140207.r.570 2014/02/07:23:00:00) x64
I believe R_Kelly is right. You have confused two things. Find Edges has never provided an adjustment dialog, while Glowing Edges has (but is limited to 8 bit documents).
What version did you think provided an adjustment for Find Edges? Just to be sure I just checked several older versions and as expected Find Edges did not provide any adjustments at all in any of them.
After you use Glowing Edges, then Invert the layer (Ctrl+i or Command+i) to get the same effect Find Edges does.