PS CS6, Mac OS 10.6.8:
This drives me bonkers. When moving layers, they snap to something.
The only option I have found in the preferences is General -> Snap Vector Tools and Transforms to Pixel Grid (whatever it means) which I have unchecked.
How can I make PS allow me to move my layers the way I want, not as Adobe want?
Go to View > Snap or Snap To.
You have a variety of things you can snap to -- Guides, Grid, Layers, Document bounds, etc...
Duh.....my recollection was that there used to be a general setting for this.