Not really. You can try and kinda fake it using Particle Playground and extensive property maps, but understanding how this works is going to take you some time and Playground is slow as molasses due to its age. Likewise you could use Trapcode Form to create fake movement using displacement and I'm sure many other third-party effects can be used in some fashion, but I'm not aware that any single one of them would provide exactly the functionality you desire.
the older version of Cycore's included effects (back when you had to download them separately) had something called Particle System (or something like that, not the currently available Particle Systems II) that used an alpha as the emitter. The system was not as robust as Particle World. If you search diligently and patiently, you may find a copy of Brian Maffitt's original Final EffectS Complete training series, originally published on VHS. That may have a reference to this obsolete effect.
Come to think of it, that would be a waste of time. The old filter, even if you find a copy, would not work with AE CC (2014).