The CS bundles have documented lists for example: http://www.adobe.com/type/browser/fontinstall/cs6installedfonts.html
CC subscriptions give access to typekit so you could say you have access to all fonts listed here: Full Library | Typekit
Also see the faq: http://www.adobe.com/products/type/creative-cloud-fonts.html
Yes. Every subscription to the Creative Cloud includes Adobe Typekit. Full (paid) Creative Cloud plans and most single-app subscriptions include a Typekit Portfolio plan, which includes hundreds of fonts for both desktop and web. Other Creative Cloud subscriptions also include a selection of fonts for desktop and web use; refer to the subscription requirements for more information.
Yes. Any subscription to an individual Adobe application includes a Typekit account. Adobe’s Photography Bundle, which is significantly discounted, includes a selection of fonts for web and desktop with Typekit’s free plan. All other single-app subscriptions include a Typekit Portfolio plan, with hundreds of fonts for web and desktop from Adobe and other type foundries.
No. All of the same fonts which used to be installed onto users' computers are available for desktop sync and web use from Typekit — along with hundreds more great typefaces from Typekit’s other foundry partners, available for desktop sync, web, or both.
The license for software which included bundled fonts allows those fonts to be used while the software is installed. That means if you uninstall the software, you are no longer licensed to use the fonts. And if you upgrade, you have a new software license which might grant different rights.
The Adobe Creative Cloud now provides desktop fonts for its users via Typekit. The same set of fonts previously bundled and installed with Adobe applications is now part of Typekit’s Portfolio plan. You are licensed to use the fonts as long as you are a Creative Cloud (or Typekit) subscriber.
Because desktop fonts from Typekit are provided by subscription, they cannot be copied and moved by the Package feature (or users). However, any recipient of your document who is also using Creative Cloud can use Typekit to sync the necessary fonts if they don’t already have them installed. In many cases, simply creating a PDF of your document with the fonts embedded is a convenient way to send a document for print output or publishing. (See also Packaging files that use synced fonts.)
No Adobe product installer or uninstaller will remove existing fonts from your computer. Even fonts installed by previous Adobe products, like the Creative Suite, will remain until you move them, delete them, or erase your hard disk.