I don't think so, and if you want to make it an anchored object so it flows with the text you'll have to anchor it in the line above the line you want to be pushed to the right.
If the paragraph leading is set to Auto (indicated by parenthesis), then the leading of the bottom line should adjust automatically when the font size increases.
I also tested your example by first creating a Character Style for the number with the desired leading and font attributes. Then I created a Paragraph Style and applied a GREP style to any digit (\d) using the Character Style. That way, any time a digit is typed, the Character Style is automatically applied.
Hope that makes sense.
I just reread your post and don't think I answered your question, or gave you the information you were looking for.
If the intent is to have the bottom line push the text above it to the right, then I'd have to agree with Peter' response... I don't think there's a way to do that automatically.