Are you certain that lens corrections were not applied automatically in Camera Raw? That's what appears to me has happened.
Look at the bottom of the Lens Corrections - Profile tab and see the notification about built-in lens corrections being applied, then click on the and see exactly what those corrections are:
Without any lens corrections the G1X2 has severe distortion:
Both Canon and Adobe are doing lens corrections and there must be slightly different math involved so the corrections aren't exactly the same.
the lens corrections did applied automatically, is there a way to set manually?
it's not a big issue but it becomes annoying when you are taking a wide shoot and it's showing on the camera but missing an edge when displaying in the Adobe software.
There is no way to turn off the automatic lens correction.
Does changing the aspect in the Manual Tab of the Lens corrections section bring back any cropped-off edge detail, or does it only crop off more?
No, the Manual Tab doesn't have any functions to make the photo shows more once the photo is displayed/processed by ACR. ACR cropped more when the photo is in wide angle, cropped less when it is more tele.
Looks like I have to live with this.