I have found a solution which I post here, in case someone runs into similar problem.
It turns out it was a driver issue. The Zbook 14 has switchable/hybrid graphics and it looks as it utilizes the deticated AMD GPU when connected with power adapter. I tried a lot of different combinations of graphics drivers found on HP's site, but the one that solved it was not available on HP.com. Instead, I grabed it directly from AMD. The screenshot below shows version numbers for the graphics drivers for the built in (Intel) and dedicated (AMD) GPU that work well for me. As you see both drivers have versions higher than the latest HP-approved drivers. But it turns out that these work way better than those supplied by HP.
I had a simillar issue using my Notebook (Samsung Series 7 NP770Z7E-S04DE with Core i7 (3rd Gen) and a second graphics adapter (AMD Radeon HD 8870M). After upgrading from Win 8 to 8.1 i had really a lot of trouble because the OS update brought new drivers for both graphics adapters which obviously did not work together. I had to reverse the update because the notebook was not showing anything but the mouse cursor. Windows 8 had some other anoying bugs so I decided to ignore the warnings of my IT-Partner and Samsung and do a clean install of Windows 7 Pro. Since then I had the problem you, jacobwod, describe but I did not care because neither I used the Cloud-Space nor there were fonts available. Today I read your post and experimented with the settings. By accident I found out that enforcing the usage of the Intel-Chip (HD 4400 I think) for not only the creative cloud.exe but also a file called "adobe cef helper.exe" in C:\Program Files (x86)\Adobe\Adobe Creative Cloud\hex\" seems to be a solution. Thanks jacobwod for getting me on the right track.
I had the same problem. HP Zbook 14 with fresh Windows 8.1 Update 1. This laptop has a switchable/hybrid graphics card with Intel HD 4400 and AMD Fire Pro M4100 chipsets. Tried latest drivers from HP as well as from Intel and AMD without sucess. The problem seems to be related to the switching/power management features. As a workaround, setting "Creative Cloud.exe" and "Adobe CEF Helper.exe" to use "Power Saving" graphics settings in the AMD CCC made the application work (no black/black window).
A post in another forum suggested using the modified drivers "Leshcat Catalyst UnifL" from leshcatlabs.net - Keeping it Simple. Ads free. After installing these drivers (Leshcat’s Catalyst 14.12 Omega UnifL) all Adobe applications are working flawlessly!
(Note: Delete any switchable graphics application settings and go with the defaults).
So to summarize this seems like a driver problem rather that an Adobe issue. Before updating I had problems with hardware accelerated gui in Spotify as well (also black screen). This issue was also solved with Leshcat's drivers.