Once document has been save there is a backing file the document name will not change. Even a new document that has not been saved name can be change directly by user code Photoshop treats Document name as read only. A Document that has no backing file name may be change during a save operation to the file name of the now backing file.
You may able to rename the backing file via a Photoshop script if Photoshop does not keep the saved file locked but that would make the current document inconsistent for the document would have a backing file that does not exists. Once a document is close out of Photoshop it you rename a file it would be OK as far as Photoshop is concerned. However it may make a database that Bridge or LR maintains inconstant. You may be better off correcting the Excel record.
Renaming files including just moving them can break things like links in placed linked files Bridge collections LR Library etc.