You'll have to have your operating system search for the photos by file name.
The files go wherever you specify (or the default location) in the Import dialog box section called Destination.
So is there a way that I can look on Lightroom to find the destination and locate the files based on that info? the thing that worries me is that I only use this computer for Lightroom, there aren't very many places the files could end up and I feel like I've searched everywhere..
If you deleted the photo from Lightroom, you cannot look in Lightroom to see where the photos are.
I didn't suggest that you do the searching ... I suggested that your operating system do the searching, and you will find the photos that way.
Understand that images are not ingested into Lightroom. In other words, they are never "in" Lightroom or in the catalog. If you have good file organization on your hard drive and you are importing images that are already on the hard drive you want to use the "Add" Option. This will add a pointer to the catalog telling Lightroom where that image is located. When you choose move then in the right-hand panel you have complete control as to where the images will be moved to. When importing images from a card you want to use the "Copy" option. This will copy the images from the card to whatever destination you choose in the right-hand panel. I think you just need to become familiar with how the import process works. In a sense using the word import could be confusing because it implies that the files are going into the program. But that simply isn't the case. You set up your import options so that the images go where you want them to go on your computer. Then Lightroom simply keeps track of them in that location.