On your primary Scratch Disk there should be a Folder called "PSAutoRecover" – are there files inside the folder/s inside that folder?
Please read this for general trouble-shooting advice (restoring Preferences after making sure all customized presets like Actions, Patterns, Brushes etc. have been saved might be of special interest):
Yeah, these are the files that I can't find. The "cache" files I referred to, or the recovery files. That's why I was hoping that deleting Adobe CC would re-set the folder structure/remove the unlinked files.
Since I can't open Photoshop, I can't access the preferences to change or update my scratch disk preferences, either.
Have you tried manually removing/deleting the files from there (and possibly restoring the Preferences)?