If I understand your question properly, the answer is "no". A good rule of thumb to follow in AE is that if you add additional layers and effects to a composition, the longer it will take to render, especially for processing-intensive effects like particles.
The look of your particles in Particular has a lot to do with the settings in the plug-in and the blend modes used both internally and for the layer. If you have a layer that takes a lot of resources to render and you want to duplicate it and stack up the effects there are basically two options. The first, which results in a little bit of time savings in render time, is to Pre-compose and then duplicate the Pre-comp in the current comp. In your example you would pre-compose your particular layer then dupe that layer and do what you need with the two copies to get the look you want. This give you a comp where Particular is only calculated once. The second option, which results in a much bigger increase in performance is to render and replace your layer that is using up system resources. This can save a bunch of time when using Particular and doing other things but the animations and effects on the rendered layers are now locked and more difficult to edit. For effects that I KNOW that I'm not going to change and that take up a lot of system resources I almost always Render and Replace. Warp Stabilizing is one effect that is always rendered and replaced unless the shot is only a couple of seconds long. Once Warp Stabilized footage is rendered and replaced I delete the Warp Stabilizer effect because it's a huge liability in the comp even if it's just sitting there and you're not doing anything with that layer or comp again.