Today (2014/01/24), the page at Adobe Flash Player - Downloads has the FlashPlayer debugger downloads (version 188.8.131.527) to Windows/Mac. I am using Mac (OSX 10.9.5) and Google Chrome. The debug player that the page offers IS NOT a debug version. It is a normal, commom version of FlashPlayer.
Note: I am a very experienced flashplayer developer, (im a flash developer since Macromedia Flash 5). I do know how to install a debug flashplayer and activate it in chrome://plugins configurations. I already uninstall and reinstall the debugger player many times (NPAPI and PPAPI ones). I already confirmed that the player running in Chrome IS the correct (and only available) version listed/installed. But it never connects to my FDT debugger and never shows the "debugger..." option in the context menu (right-click default context menu).
Please, double check if the version linked in downloads page IS a debugger version of FP 16.