Text converted to outlines is no longer text, so you will always lose text ornamentations like underlines or paragraph rules if you use ID's convert text to outlines command.
The correct answer to this is to find a printer who knows his job and accepts PDF with embedded fonts so you don't have to outline, but if that's not possible, see InDesignSecrets » Blog Archive » Converting Text to Outlines The Right Way and Possible bug: oulining text w/ flattener in CS5 to see waht you have to do to make this still work in recent versions of ID.
But there is information about this. A lot of.
Do yourself a favour and read all the comments there.
The trick is: You'll do this, if absolutely necessary, and I will not ask why, will not debate the thing, er, you will do this when exporting to PDF or printing to PostScript. You SHOULD NEVER will do this to live text in InDesign!
Never outline text. If a printer requires it, take another one. There exists no reason to do so, create a PDF/X with embedded fonts.
I don't think it's fair to say "The correct answer to this is to find a printer who knows his job" - the correct answer would be for Adobe to not release software with a feature that doesn't work correctly or at least have updated it over the years to do so.
The fact is not all printers use Adobe software, several we use won't touch it and only accept Corel compatible files - then I require a quick simple convert to paths as I quite rightly expect the software to do.
Again I'm amazed at the "you're using the wrong printer" response - that's not an answer to the question I asked. Not all cities / countries have a plethora of printers at hand in order to simply swap suppliers with ease. Our local printer has a two colour press from the 50's and a screen-print press where the prints are dried hanging from old bicycle wheels. Here Adobe is a material used to construct houses.
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If you want to use a printer who does not accept anything except CorelDraw you ought to be working in CorelDraw, not InDesign.
The software is working as designed. Paragraph rules can only be applied by style to actual text. If you want to use outlines you no longer have text, text styles can no longer be used, and you have to draw your own paths for ornamentations like rules.
And again, if you have no options, there is a perfectly good method for creating outlines when exporting the PDF, as linked for you twice, but if your printer cannot accept the PDF, you really need to re-evaluate your entire workflow. You need to be using software that is appropriate to your conditions, and if that means you are not able to use InDesign, that's sad, but certainly not the fault of Adobe for making a good product for 21st century workflows.
I read that article several years ago - export and convert to paths in illustrator remained far more simple and direct.
The question is / was - and perhaps I should have been more precise in my wording - Has Adobe fixed what is apparently a huge flaw in their product? The answer to which is - no.
It's a gaping hole in the functionality of the software and the fact that people are defending that is staggering to me. I convert a page of text with bullets to paths - they disappear. A box of white text with coloured background - vanishes. At what point did someone see that happen and decide not to bother fixing it.
Cheap jibes and insults towards my and my suppliers working practices - which have served us all well for a quarter century - is beneath contempt and I'd have expected far better from users of this supposed "help" forum. If all you have to offer over actual relevant comments is an expression of smugness and superiority kindly don't bother replying.
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If you have Acrobat, have you tried the flattener from the print production toolset? While in the comments to the linked article someone mentions it doesn't always work, it's always worked for me. I have some people I work with outside of the US where I have to send files like you are doing a few times a year.
This is how the preset I saved for this is set up.
The test file I just threw together has a mix of bullets, numbering, character style with a dashed underline, highlighted text that was underlined, etc.