Which Adobe product are you using, which version (including minor), which platform/OS/OS version? In my 11.0.10 version all signing options are present.
From your description it is difficult to ascertain what's going on. Do you have a PDF open? You cannot sign if you do not have a PDF to sign. You may have set (perhaps unwittingly) some preferences that cause this behavior. Could you provide a screenshot of what you see?
I also have 11.0.10 installed. It is on my work computer, so I don't have any control over preferences. I contacted our IT and they don't have a clue (they basically can't find anywhere that you could turn them on/off), which is why I turned to this forum. When I open a PDF to insert my signature, like I have for years now, it only has 2 buttons in the top right: "fill & sign" and "comments". The first only allows me to either "sign with certificate" or add a "time stamp". See below.