I sure hope someone has an answer for me.
Sure, but you're not going to like it: Your virus scanner/ security settings suck. Sorry, but this has nothing to do with CC as such. Your mere mention of "quarantined items" gave me cold shivers. A good virus scanner doesn't do that without asking the user. You need to fix this stuff more than anything else. If you have specific issues, provide proper system info and the detailed application/ event viewer logs. Otherwise this is really nothing that can be resolved with a "Which button in CC must I press." answer.
Did you tried providing full permissions to Adobe folder under C: > Program Files(x86) > Common Files??
Or did you tried with Hidden Administrator account ?
Refer below link :
Make sure that Adobe folder under Common Files as full permissions.
Also Photoshop shortcut location is having valid target location .
Your answer was correct Brucgovn as compared to Mylenium who was harsh to say the least. It was a simply matter of not having the right permissions setting.