You used File > Place... in ID, not copy/paste or drag and drop from Photoshop, right?
Are there any warnings for the link in the Links panel? When you check the link info, what is the Effective PPI number? How does the PDF look when you zoom in?
These images are not originated from Photoshop but from some vector application like Illustrator. Place a vector file like AI or PDF instead. I think the original file is a vector file anyway.
Is there a specific reason why you use jpg, tiff or psd?
If the file was created in Photoshop, use PDF or PDP instead.
it's like this at every possible setting I've tried to far
Have you tried no compression or sampling like this?
It could also be the Acrobat Page Display preference. Check this thread: