Unfortunately, I think that it's currently impossible. I do agree that it needs to be implemented as an option. Another interesting option would be to be able to keep them at a fixed size when zooming in and out. That way we could use "gutters" between the artboards and keep the name and the display clean at any zoom level. The current system is interesting but it doesn't work in many case.
I too would love this feature!
Go to menu View > Show > Artboard Names and uncheck it.
(Caveat - this is CC2015.5.1 and CC2017.1.1 , I don't have CC2015 installed to test)