There is already such an an Idea (feature request) on the Photoshop Feedback site: http://feedback.photoshop.com/photoshop_family/topics/filter-by-comment
Feel free to vote for it (and to spread the word in order to raise votes)
Likes and comments get a thumbnail badge but at the moment that's the only way to identify images manually. It would certainly be good to filter on badges or on likes/comments.
You can't filter by likes and comments, but obviously that would be good to have.
However, in Lr you can sort a collection by the comment time.
Ah thanks! To sort by comment time helps.