After you have saved the PSD, when you choose to edit in Photoshop you need to make the choice to edit the original. That will open the file with layers. If you choose to edit a copy with Lightroom adjustments then a new PSD will be created with out layers. So once you have started working on your PSD image you need to refrain from making any adjustments in Lightroom until you are finished with Photoshop.
If you have made further adjustments to the PSD in LR it should be possible to go back in the history panel to the point of Editing In PS and your layers should still be intact when you choose the Edit Original again.
OMG! Thank you! Wish I would have asked this question years ago!
Two side questions-
1) When I open the psd using 'edit original' given your awesome advice- I see my last set of layers- however, my history panel only lists "open". There is no history listed. Sometimes the actions I use flatten my image along the way which is annoying. How do I get access to the entire history for the image? Am I making sense?
2) Also, I sometimes drag layers from one image to another in PS to get consistent editing in my images. This is sometimes not possible because I have to merge layers along the way for reasons I don't understand. How do I ensure that all my edits stay in the layers panel- sometimes the actions I use flatten my image which I don't want. Any way to get around this? Or sometimes if I sharpen an image in the middle of my editing process non of my other layers work until I merge the layers. HELP!
Thanks in advance!
I cannot fully answer your question. But I can tell you that whenever you close an image in Photoshop the Photoshop history is gone. You'll still have your layers, but the editing history is not retained.
Your question 2
If you have multiple layer and you have not select the base layer before you sharpen 99% of the time that sharpening is being done on the layer you have currently selected. If there isn't any real image data on that layer there is nothing to sharpen. Even if you select the base layer that has the actual image pixels on it the sharpening could be masked out, covered up, by layers above it.