The location of the catalog and the location of your images are two separate things that are not related to each other. The catalog references the images by path and file name. If you move the image files, you just need to tell LR where you moved them to.
If you move your images using the OS tools (Finder/Explorer), as long as you keep the same directory structure, "relocating" the folders in LR's Folder panel is simple. For example, drag-drop your top-most image folder to a new drive then in LR, relocate/find-missing on the one top-most folder you moved.
If you want to move your catalog:
select your *.lrcat file and it matching "* preview.lrdata" folder, move both of them to another drive.
Start LR, "open" the catalog at its new location.
The problem is I have reorganized the file structure in windows file explorer. As I understand it, all of my processing/edits are stored in the catalog file.
I can create a new catalog with the new organized files, but I will not have any of my edits. How can I keep my edits in the new file structure?
How much different is your new directory structure from the old one?
Since you move the folders, LR really wants you to do a "find missing" on the folders before you attempt any "find missing" on the photos. If your bottom-level folders that contain your images can be mapped from the old system to the new system, your life will be much easier than individually "finding" the photos. The higher up in the directory tree you can do the mapping then the more easier life becomes.
The problem is I have reorganized the file structure in windows file explorer.
As you may be realising, this is a really bad idea!
If you move the whole directory structure, keeping it intact, then it's quite easy to relocate it in Lightroom. When you open Lightroom, the files and folders will show a "?" by them. If the folder structure is the same, you can just right-click the top folder and there's an option to tell LR where the folder has moved.
If you've relocated individual photos, then you can go to each photo, right-click the "?" and again, tell it where the photo has gone. But this leaves a problem: the file structure as seen in LR now may not match the file structure on disk. This can be awfully confusing.
Much, much, much better is to move files around in LR, not in Windows Explorer. You can drag files or folders around, just as you can in Explorer. But this way, LR maintains the links to the files.
If you have a backup, and you can restore the files the way they were before you moved them, then I'd use that - restore the files and then move them from within LR.
Thank you for the recommendation. I am now trying to organize my folders within LR, but it only displays a few folders. How can I get more of the folders to show up? I have not found a way to expand that window.
The only folders shown are the ones with images that have been imported.
To get the parent directories shown, right-click on a folder and select "show parent". Repeat as needed.