Maybe...Maybe not. CS4 is unsupported and untested. There's no way to assure you of success here, but it wasn't supported on Windows 8, either.
You can always roll back to Windows 8 if you have problems.
The other possibility would be to install a Windows 7 or XP virtual machine. Did a bit of googling this morning and it doesn't look too difficult.
It seems to work just fine.
Mind you, I got Windows 10 just this week and my hard disk did not survive an attempt to 'clone' it for a backup, so I had to start with a blissfully empty new HD and freshly installed Windows and InDesign's [*]. But the workplace over to my left, where Windows was "updated in place" over an existing W7, works so far without a hitch as well.
Tip o' the hat to the folks in Redmond! The Mac half of my co-workers envy me, as they have been suffering under Apple's latest half-baked, shoddy upgrades that made their systems unstable and slow.
[*] Full disclosure: the pre-installer recommended to replace my video card (which was, admittedly, still from around the Windows XP "640x480 in glorious full color!" date) and change my hard disk to an SSD. But with these and Windows 10, my InDesign CS4 is flying as it never had before.
My next Mac is a Windows machine ;-)
I was all set to do a clean install after the upgrade (you have to upgrade first to be sure the activation is successful) but was amazed at how well it worked. Didn't bother with the clean install.