Does the screen resolution, set at one of the three choices, determine what the finished product will be, when the file is ready to be PDFed sent to the printer, if entirely using CMYK?
No. Resolution of raster objects in the PDF is determined by their "effective" resolution on the page and the settings in the Compression section of the export settings.
Display resolution in InDesign has nothing to do with the output resolution. In the case of a PDF, the image resolution will be determined by the PDF Preset that you choose when exporting to the PDF file.