Anything you do in Bridge is not reflected in Lightroom.
In particular, renaming outside of Lightroom effectively destroys all the links in Lightroom to your photos (because Lightroom is still expecting to find the old names).
As far as I know, this is one of the least recoverable errors there is. The only way to "fix" the Lightroom catalog is to reconnect the photos one-by-one in Lightroom. There is no batch reconnect that I know of.
In the future, you would be better off not using Bridge with Lightroom.
Thank you! Is there a way to remove the images from the catalog and then re-import them without losing any edits?
As I said, I am not aware of a way to fix this problem in Lightroom, other than reconnecting the photos one-by-one.
Once you remove the images from Lightroom, you lose the edits.
Got it. I'll make sure to keep bridge out of my work flow.