What do you mean by "development environment"? If you are developing InDesign Server-specific C++ plugins, then yes, you need the debug version.
But, I'd guess you are just developing a workflow around InDesign Server. In that case, NO! You do not want to be using the debug version of InDesign. You should use the release version of InDesign Server instead.
Based on what my manager told me, we have to run the debug version on an internal development server. I am being tasked to do some "proof of concept" testing to see if using SOAP will work for us. Currently we are using COM interop with C# and want to switch over to using SOAP/scripts.I have no experience using Indesign or Indesign server.
Go back to your manager and ask why you need to run the debug version. You are obviously not an InDesign plugin developer, so that makes no sense to me.